Gigantyczny wybuch supernowej

Gigantyczny wybuch supernowej.A

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Wybuch supernowej wykrył międzynarodowy zespół astronomów

Die am Dienstag (15.05.2007) vom europäischen Hubble-Zentrum veröffentlichte Aufnahme zeigt einen Ring Dunkler Materie in einem fünf Milliarden Lichtjahre entfernten Galaxienhaufen im Sternbild Fische. Die Verteilung der Dunklen Materie ist leuchtend blau dargestellt, da die rätselhafte Substanz unsichtbar ist. Ihre Verteilung wurde am Computer errechnet und über das "Hubble"-Foto gelegt. Mit der Aufnahme hat das Weltraumteleskop einen der bislang stärksten Beweise für die Existenz der mysteriösen Dunklen Materie im All geliefert. Dunkle Materie, deren Zusammensetzung völlig unbekannt ist, findet sich im Universum mindestens fünf mal häufiger als gewöhnliche Materie, aus der Sterne und Planeten aufgebaut sind. Sie lässt sich allerdings nicht direkt beobachten, sondern verrät sich nur durch ihre Schwerkraft. Foto: NASA, ESA, MJ. Jee and H. Ford (zu dpa 0538 vom 15.05.2007) ACHTUNG SPERRFRIST 15. Mai, 19.00 Uhr +++(c) dpa - Report+++ pap/dpa  Dostawca: PAP/DPA

Foto: NASA, ESA, MJ. Jee and H. Ford (zu dpa 0538 vom 15.05.2007) ACHTUNG SPERRFRIST 15. Mai, 19.00 Uhr +++(c) dpa – Report+++ pap/dpa
Dostawca: PAP/DPA

O zjawisku poinformowało w swym ostatnim wydaniu czasopismo „Science”. Wybuch był tak potężny, że łatwością przyćmiłby całą galaktykę Drogi Mlecznej, w której znajduje się Układ Słoneczny. Do gigantycznej eksplozji doszło – według wstępnych ocen – w galaktyce odległej o 3,8 mld lat świetlnych od Ziemi.

Szczątki rosyjskiej rakiety kosmicznej nad Tajlandią To niezwykłe zjawisko zaobserwowano w ub. r. w ramach programu ASASSN (All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae) za pomocą sieci teleskopów rozmieszczonych całej Ziemi. Według „Science” był to „najpotężniejszy wybuch supernowej obserwowany kiedykolwiek podczas całej historii ludzkości”.

Wybuchy supernowych, olbrzymich i niezwykle masywnych gwiazd rozrywanych przez wewnętrzne siły, które okazują się silniejsze niż grawitacja usiłująca im zapobiec, udaje się zaobserwować bardzo rzadko.

Wybuch supernowej jest – według ocen naukowców – zazwyczaj 20 razy jaśniejszy od światła emitowanego przez przeciętną galaktykę spiralną, do których zalicza się Droga Mleczna. Czasami eksplozja jest 50 razy jaśniejsza, czyli 570 mld razy jaśniejsza od naszego Słońca.
Ostatni wybuch, który otrzymał nazwę ASASSN-15lh, był dwa razy silniejszy od poprzednio obserwowanego rekordu.
Jeden z astronomów uczestniczących w projekcie, Sobo Dong z uniwersytetu w Pekinie, powiedział, że był tak zafascynowany zjawiskiem, że „nie mógł spać przez całą noc”.

Inny naukowiec Benjamin Shappee z Carnegie Institution for Science, w Pasadenie (Kalifornia) określił wybuch jako „surrealistyczny”. „Tego rodzaju odkrycia są powodem, dla którego jestem astronomem. Natura jest bardzo mądra i czasami ma większą wyobraźnię niż my” – napisał w e-mailu.
Naukowcy zgodnie stwierdzają, że wybuch był tak potężny i wyemitował tak wielką ilość energii, że postawił pod znakiem zapytanie wszystkie dotychczasowe teorie dotyczące gwiazd supernowych. Nic nie wiadomo w szczególności o mechanizmie zjawiska ani o źródle tak niewyobrażalnej ilości energii.

Naukowcy podejrzewają, że we Wszechświecie mogą znajdować się podobnie potężne gwiazdy grożące w każdej chwili wybuchem. Planowane są szczegółowe dalsze obserwacje, m. in. przy użyciu orbitalnego teleskopu Hubble.
Według Donga wybuch ASASSN-15lh „może zrewidować nasze podejście do fenomenu supernowych”.

źródło http://wiadomosci.wp.pl/query,kosmos

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